CS6703 GCC Notes, Grid & Cloud Computing Lecture Handwritten Notes – CSE 7th SEM Anna University

CS6703 GCC Notes

Anna University Regulation 2013 CSE CS6703 GCC Notes for all 5 units and CSE 7th SEM CS6703 Grid & Cloud Computing Lecture Handwritten Notes are listed down for students to make perfect utilization and score maximum marks with our study materials.


Unit I


Over the past 60 years, computing technology has undergone a series of platform and environment changes. In this section, we assess evolutionary changes in machine architecture, operating system platform, network connectivity, and application workload.Instead of using a centralized computer to solve computational problems, a parallel and distributed computing system uses multiple computers to solve large-scale problems over the Internet. Thus, distributed computing becomes data-intensive and network-centric. This section identifies the applications of modern computer systems that practice parallel and distributed computing. These large-scale Internet applications have significantly enhanced the quality of life and information services in society today.

1.1 The Age of Internet Computing

Billions of people use the Internet every day. As a result, supercomputer sites and large data centers must provide high-performance computing services to huge numbers of Internet users concurrently. Because of this high demand, the Linpack Benchmark for high-performance computing (HPC) applications is no longer optimal for measuring system performance. The emergence of computing clouds instead demands high-throughput computing (HTC) systems built with parallel and distributed computing technologies . We have to upgrade data centers using fast servers, storage systems, and high-bandwidth networks. The purpose is to advance network-based computing and web services with the emerging new technologies.

1.1.1 The Platform Evolution

Computer technology has gone through five generations of development, with each generation lasting from 10 to 20 years. Successive generations are overlapped in about 10 years. For instance, from 1950 to 1970, a handful of mainframes, including the IBM 360 and CDC 6400, were built to satisfy the demands of large businesses and government organizations. From 1960 to 1980, lower-cost minicomputers such as the DEC PDP 11 and VAX Series became popular among small businesses and on college campuses.From 1970 to 1990, we saw widespread use of personal computers built with VLSI microprocessors. From 1980 to 2000, massive numbers of portable computers and pervasive devices appeared in both wired and wireless applications. Since 1990, the use of both HPC and HTC systems hidden in clusters, grids, or Internet clouds has proliferated.These systems are employed by both consumers and high-end web-scale computing and information services.

The general computing trend is to leverage shared web resources and massive amounts of data over the Internet. The evolution of HPC and HTC systems. On the HPC side, supercomputers (massively parallel processors or MPPs) are gradually replaced by clusters of cooperative computers out of a desire to share computing resources. The cluster is often a collection of homogeneous compute nodes that are physically connected in close range to one another.

On the HTC side, peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are formed for distributed file sharing and content delivery applications. A P2P system is built over many client machines. Peer machines are globally distributed in nature. P2P, cloud computing, and web service platforms are more focused on HTC applications than on HPC applications. Clustering and P2P technologies lead to the development of computational grids or data grids.

1.1.2 High-Performance Computing

For many years, HPC systems emphasize the raw speed performance. The speed of HPC systems has increased from Gflops in the early 1990s to now Pflops in 2010. This improvement was driven mainly by the demands from scientific, engineering, and manufacturing communities. For example, the Top 500 most powerful computer systems in the world are measured by floating-point speed in Linpack benchmark results. However, the number of supercomputer users is limited to less than 10% of all computer users. Today, the majority of computer users are using desktop computers or large servers when they conduct Internet searches and market-driven computing tasks.

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