CE8591 FE 2marks
Anna University Regulation 2017 CIVIL CE8591 FE 2marks & 16marks for all 5 units are provided below. CE8591 FE Short answers, Question Bank for Foundation Engineering Engineering are listed down for students to make perfect utilization and score maximum marks with our study materials.
CE8591 FOUNDATION ENGINEERING ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK 2-marks
Types of boring
It is combined method of sampling & boring operation. Closed bottom sampler, slit cup, or piston type is forced in to the ground up to the desired depth. Then the sampler is detached from soil below it, by rotating the piston, & finally the piston is released or withdrawn. The sampler is then again forced further down & sample is taken. After withdrawal of sampler & removal of sample from sampler, the sampler is kept in closed condition & again used for another depth.
Simple and economic method if excessive caving does not occur. Therefore not suitable for loose sand.
Major changes of soil character can be detected by means of penetration resistance.
These are 25mm to 75mm holes.
It requires fairly continuous sampling in stiff and dense soil, either to protect the sampler from damage or to avoid objectionably heavy construction pit.
It is a popular method due to the use of limited equipments. The advantage of this is the use of inexpensive and easily portable handling and drilling equipments. Here first an open hole is formed on the ground so that the soil sampling or rock drilling operation can be done below the hole. The hole is advanced by chopping and twisting action of the light bit. Cutting is done by forced water and water jet under pressure through the rods operated inside the hole.
In India the ―Dheki‖ operation is used, i.e., a pipe of 5cm diameter is held vertically and filled with water using horizontal lever arrangement and by the process of suction and application of pressure, soil slurry comes out of the tube and pipe goes down. This can be done upto a depth of 8m –10m (excluding the depth of hole already formed beforehand)
Just by noting the change of colour of soil coming out with the change of soil character can be identified by any experienced person. It gives completely disturbed sample and is not suitable for very soft soil, fine to medium grained cohesionless soil and in cemented soil.
1.1Planning For Subsurface Exploration
The planning of the site exploration program involves location and depth of borings, test pits or other methods to be used, and methods of sampling and tests to be carried out. The purpose of the exploration program is to determine, within practical limits, the stratification and engineering properties of the soils underlying the site. The principal properties of interest will be the strength,
deformation, and hydraulic characteristics. The program should be planned so that the maximum amount of information can be obtained at minimum cost. In the earlier stages of an investigation, the information available is often inadequate to allow a firm and detailed plan to be made. The investigation is therefore performed in the following phases:
1. Fact finding and geological survey Reconnaissance
1. Preliminary exploration
2. Detailed exploration
1. Fact finding and geological survey
Assemble all information on dimensions, column spacing, type and use of structure, basement requirements, and any special architectural considerations of the proposed building. Foundation regulations in the local building code should be consulted for any special requirements. For bridges the soil engineer should have access to type and span lengths as well as pier loadings. This information will indicate any settlement limitations, and can be used to estimate foundation loads.
This may be in the form of a field trip to the site which can reveal information on the type and behavior of adjacent sites and structures such as cracks, noticeable sags, and possibly sticking doors and windows. The type of local existing structure may influence, to a considerable extent, the exploration program and the best foundation type for the proposed adjacent structure. Since nearby existing
structures must be maintained, excavations or vibrations will have to be carefully controlled. Erosion in existing cuts (or ditches) may also be observed. For highways, run off patterns , as well as soil stratification to the depth of the erosion cut , may be observed. Rock outcrops may give an indication of the presence or the depth of bedrock.
3. Auger boring
This method is fast and economical, using simple, light, flexible and inexpensive instruments for large to small holes. It is very suitable for soft to stiff cohesive soils and also can be used to determine ground water table. Soil removed by this is disturbed but it is better than wash boring, percussion or rotary drilling. It is not suitable for very hard or cemented soils, very soft soils, as then the flow into the hole can occur and also for fully saturated cohesionless soil.
3. Auger boring
This method is fast and economical, using simple, light, flexible and inexpensive instruments for large to small holes. It is very suitable for soft to stiff cohesive soils and also can be used to determine ground water table. Soil removed by this is disturbed but it is better than wash boring, percussion or rotary drilling. It is not suitable for very hard or cemented soils, very soft soils, as then the flow into the hole can occur and also for fully saturated cohesionless soil. Soil Sampling
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CE8591 FE 2marks
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