EC6702 OCN Notes, Optical Communication Networks Lecture Handwritten Notes – ECE 7th SEM Anna University


EC6702 OCN Notes

Anna University Regulation 2013 ECE EC6702 OCN Notes, Optical Communication Networks Engineering Lecture Handwritten Notes for all 5 units are provided below. Download link for ECE 7th SEM EC6702 Optical Communication Networks Engineering Lecture Handwritten Notes are listed down for students to make perfect utilization and score maximum marks with our study materials.


1.1 Evolution of fiber optic system:

In 1966 Charles K. Kao and George Hockham proposed optical fibers at STC Laboratories (STL), Harlow, when they showed that the losses of 1000 db/km in existing glass (compared to 5-10 db/km in coaxial cable) was due to contaminants, which could potentially be removed.

Optical fiber was successfully developed in 1970 by Corning Glass Works, with attenuation low enough for communication purposes (about 20dB/km), and at the same time GaAs semiconductor lasers were developed that were compact and therefore suitable for transmitting light through fiber optic cables for long distances.

After a period of research starting from 1975, the first commercial fiber-optic communications system was developed, which operated at a wavelength around 0.8 µm and used GaAs semiconductor lasers. This first-generation system operated at a bit rate of 45 Mbps with repeater spacing of up to 10 km. Soon on 22 April, 1977, General Telephone and Electronics sent the first live telephone traffic through fiber optics at a 6 Mbps throughput in Long Beach, California.

The second generation of fiber-optic communication was developed for commercial use in the early 1980s, operated at 1.3 µm, and used InGaAsP semiconductor lasers. Although these systems were initially limited by dispersion, in 1981 the singlemode fiber was revealed to greatly improve system performance. By 1987, these systems were operating at bit rates of up to 1.7 Gb/s with repeater spacing up to 50 km.

The first transatlantic telephone cable to use optical fiber was TAT-8, based on Desurvire optimized laser amplification technology. It went into operation in 1988.

Third-generation fiber-optic systems operated at 1.55 µm and had losses of about 0.2 dB/km. They achieved this despite earlier difficulties with pulse-spreading at that wavelength using conventional InGaAsP semiconductor lasers. Scientists overcame this difficulty by using dispersion-shifted fibers designed to have minimal dispersion at 1.55 µm or by limiting the laser spectrum to a single longitudinal mode. These developments eventually allowed third-generation systems to operate commercially at 2.5 Gbit/s with repeater spacing in excess of 100 km.

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