EC6703 ERTS Notes, Embedded & Real Time Systems Lecture Handwritten Notes – CSE 7th SEM Anna University


Anna University Regulation 2013 Computer Science and Engineering (CSE) EC6703 ERTS Notes for all 5 units are provided below. Download link for CSE 7th SEM EC6703 Embedded & Real Time Systems Lecture Handwritten Notes are listed down for students to make perfect utilization and score maximum marks with our study materials.




• What is an embedded computer system? Loosely defined, it is any device that includes a programmable computer but is not itself intended to be a general-purpose computer. Thus, a PC is not itself an embedded computing system, although PCs are often used to build embedded computing systems. But a fax machine or a clock built from a microprocessor is an embedded computing system.

• This means that embedded computing system design is a useful skill for many types of product design. Automobiles, cell phones, and even household appliances make extensive use of microprocessors. Designers in many fields must be able to identify where microprocessors can be used, design a hardware platform with I/O devices that can support the required tasks, and implement software that performs the required processing.

• Computer engineering, like mechanical design or thermodynamics, is a fundamental discipline that can be applied in many different domains. But of course, embedded computing system design does not stand alone.

• Many of the challenges encountered in the design of an embedded computing system are not computer engineering—for example,they may be mechanical or analog electrical problems. In this book we are primarily interested in the embedded computer itself, so we will concentrate on the hardware and software that enable the desired functions in the final product.

1.1 Embedding Computers

• Computers have been embedded into applications since the earliest days of computing. One example is the Whirlwind, a computer designed at MIT in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Whirlwind was also the first computer designed to support real-time operation and was originally conceived as a mechanism for controlling an aircraft simulator.

• Even though it was extremely large physically compared to today’s computers (e.g., it contained over 4,000 vacuum tubes), its complete design from components to system was attuned to the needs of real-time embedded computing.

• The utility of computers in replacing mechanical or human controllers was evident from the very beginning of the computer era—for example, computers were proposed to control chemical processes in the late 1940s.

• A microprocessor is a single-chip CPU. Very large scale integration (VLSI) stet the acronym is the name technology has allowed us to put a complete CPU on a single chip since 1970s, but those CPUs were very simple.

• The first microprocessor, the Intel 4004, was designed for an embedded application, namely, a calculator. The calculator was not a general-purpose computer—it merely provided basic arithmetic functions. However, Ted Hoff of Intel realized that a general-purpose computer programmed properly could implement the required function, and that the computer-on-a-chip could then be reprogrammed for use in other products as well.

• Since integrated circuit design was (and still is) an expensive and time consuming process, the ability to reuse the hardware design by changing the software was a key breakthrough.

• The HP-35 was the first handheld calculator to perform transcendental functions [Whi72]. It was introduced in 1972, so it used several chips to implement the CPU, rather than a single-chip microprocessor.

• However, the ability to write programs to perform math rather than having to design digital circuits to perform operations like trigonometric functions was critical to the successful design of the calculator.

• Automobile designers started making use of the microprocessor soon after single-chip CPUs became available.

• The most important and sophisticated use of microprocessors in automobiles was to control the engine: determining when spark plugs fire, controlling the fuel/air mixture, and so on. There was a trend toward electronics in automobiles in general—electronic devices could be used to replace the mechanical distributor.

• But the big push toward microprocessor-based engine control came from two nearly simultaneous developments: The oil shock of the 1970s caused consumers to place much higher value on fuel economy, and fears of pollution resulted in laws restricting automobile engine emissions.

• The combination of low fuel consumption and low emissions is very difficult to achieve; to meet these goals without compromising engine performance, automobile manufacturers turned to sophisticated control algorithms that could be implemented only with microprocessors.

• Microprocessors come in many different levels of sophistication; they are usually classified by their word size. An 8-bit microcontroller is designed for low-cost applications and includes onboard memory and I/O devices; a 16-bit microcontroller is often used for more sophisticated applications that may require either longer word lengths or off-chip I/O and memory; and a 32- bit RISC microprocessor offers very high performance.

• Given the wide variety of microprocessor types available, it should be no surprise that microprocessors are used in many ways. There are many household uses of microprocessors. The typical microwave oven has at least one microprocessor to control oven operation.

• Many houses have advanced thermostat systems, which change the temperature level at various times during the day. The modern camera is a prime example of the powerful features that can be added under microprocessor control.

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