EC8552 CAO Notes

Anna University Regulation 2017 ECE EC8552 CAO Notes, COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE AND ORGANIZATION Lecture Handwritten Notes for all 5 units are provided below. Download link for ECE 5th Sem COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE AND ORGANIZATION Notes are listed down for students to make perfect utilization and score maximum marks with our study materials.


1. Addressing Modes
The different ways in which the location of an operand is specified in an instruction are referred to as addressing modes. It is a method used to determine which part of memory is being referred by a machine instruction.

Register mode
Operand is the content of a processor register. The register name/address is given in the instruction. Value of R2 is moved to R1.
Example: MOV R1, R2
Absolute mode (direct)
Operand is in the memory location. Address of the location is given explicitly.
Here value in A is moved to 1000H.
Example: MOV 1000, A
Immediate mode:
Address and data constants can be given explicitly in the instruction. Here value
constant 200 is moved to R0 register.
Example: MOV #200, R0

Indirect Mode:
The processor will read the register content (R1) in this case, which will not have direct value. Instead, it will be the address or location in which, the value will be stored. Then the fetched value is added with the value in R0 register.
Example: ADD (R1), R0
Indexed / Relative Addressing Mode:
The processor will take R1 register address as base address and adds the value constant 20 (offset / displacement) with the base address to get the derived or actual memory location of the value i.e., stored in the memory. It fetches the value then adds the value to R2 register.
Example: ADD 20(R1), R2
Auto increment mode and Auto decrement Mode:
The value in the register / address that is supplied in the instruction is incremented or decremented.
Ex: Increment R1 (Increments the given register / address content by one)
Ex: Decrement R2 (Decrements the given register / address content by one)

2. Technologies for Building Processors and Memory
1. Transistor
2. very large-scale integrated (V L S I ) circuit
3. silicon
4. semiconductor
5. silicon crystal ingot
6. wafer
7. defect
8. die
A transistor is simply an on/off switch controlled by electricity. The integrated circuit (I C) combined dozens to hundreds of transistors into a single chip.
To describe the tremendous increase in the number of transistors from hundreds to millions, the adjective very large scale is added to the term, creating the abbreviation VLSI, for very

To manufacture integrated circuits, we start at the beginning. The manufacture of a chip begins with silicon, silicon does not conduct electricity well, and it is called a semiconductor. With a special chemical process, it is possible to add materials to silicon that allow tiny areas to transform into one of three devices:
 Excellent conductors of electricity (using either microscopic copper or aluminum wire)
 Excellent insulators from electricity (like plastic sheathing or glass)
 Areas that can conduct or insulate under special conditions (as a switch)

EC8552 CAO Unit 1 notes  Download Here

EC8552 CAO Unit 2 notes  Download Here

EC8552 CAO Unit 3 notes  Download Here

EC8552 CAO Unit 4 notes  Download Here

EC8552 CAO Unit 5 notes  Download Here

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