Anna University Regulation 2013 Information Technology (IT) GE6151 CP Notes for all 5 units are provided below. Download link for IT 1st SEM GE6151 Computer Programming Lecture Notes are listed down for students to make perfect utilization and score maximum marks with our study materials.
GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS
The Zeroth Generation
The term Zeroth generation is used to refer to the period of development of computing, which predated the commercial production and sale of computer equipment. The period might be dated as extending from the mid-1800s. In particular, this period witnessed the emergence of the first electronics digital computers on the ABC, since it was the first to fully implement the idea of the stored program and serial execution of instructions. The development of EDVAC set the stage for the evolution of commercial computing and operating system software. The hardware component technology of this period was electronic vacuum tubes. The actual operation of these early computers took place without be benefit of an operating system. Early programs were written in machine language and each contained code for initiating operation of the computer itself. This system was clearly inefficient and depended on the varying competencies of the individual programmer as operators.
The First Generation, 1951-1956
The first generation marked the beginning of commercial computing. The first generation was characterized by high-speed vacuum tube as the active component technology. Operation continued without the benefit of an operating system for a time. The mode was called “closed shop” and was characterized by the appearance of hired operators who would select the job to be run, initial program load the system, run the user’s program, and then select another job, and so forth. Programs began to be written in higher level, procedure-oriented languages, and thus the operator’s routine expanded. The operator now selected a job, ran the translation program to assemble or compile the source program, and combined the translated object program along with any existing library programs that the program might need for input to the linking program, loaded and ran the composite linked program, and then handled the next job in a similar fashion. Application programs were run one at a time, and were translated with absolute computer addresses. There was no provision for moving a program to different location in storage for any reason. Similarly, a program bound to specific devices could not be run at all if any of these devices were busy or broken.
At the same time, the development of programming languages was moving away from the basic machine languages; first to assembly language, and later to procedure oriented languages, the most significant being the development of FORTRAN
The Second Generation, 1956-1964
The second generation of computer hardware was most notably characterized by transistors replacing vacuum tubes as the hardware component technology. In addition, some very important changes in hardware and software architectures occurred during this period. For the most part, computer systems remained card and tape-oriented systems. Significant use of random access devices, that is, disks, did not appear until towards the end of the second generation. Program processing was, for the most part, provided by large centralized computers operated under mono-programmed batch processing operating systems.
The most significant innovations addressed the problem of excessive central processor delay due to waiting for input/output operations. Recall that programs were executed by processing the machine instructions in a strictly sequential order. As a result, the CPU, with its high speed electronic component, was often forced to wait for completion of I/O operations which involved mechanical devices (card readers and tape drives) that were order of magnitude slower.
These hardware developments led to enhancements of the operating system. I/O and data channel communication and control became functions of the operating system, both to relieve the application programmer from the difficult details of I/O programming and to protect the integrity of the system to provide improved service to users by segmenting jobs and running shorter jobs first (during “prime time”) and relegating longer jobs to lower priority or night time runs. System libraries became more widely available and more comprehensive as new utilities and application software components were available to programmers.
The second generation was a period of intense operating system development. Also it was the period for sequential batch processing. Researchers began to experiment with multi-programming and multiprocessing.
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Anna University 1st SEM IT CP Lecture Notes
GE6151 Computer Programming Notes free download
Anna University IT CP Notes Regulation 2013
GE6151 Notes, CP Unit wise Lecture Notes – IT 1st Semester